There are no proven preventive medications for age-related macular degeneration. Good health is optimally achieved through knowledge and prevention.
The best way to prevent vision loss is to have yearly dilated retinal examinations. Your ophthalmologist will be able to determine the severity and type of AMD. Then the appropriate plan can be implemented.  The earlier you treat it, the better the chance that treatment will help.
People older than 45 years with a family history of age-related macular degeneration have a greater chance of developing the disease. There is a new DNA test  to determine the patient’s risk of progression to advanced AMD based on their individual genetic risk profile.
Using the Amsler grid may help detect subtle changes in your vision. You can monitor your vision daily by posting an Amsler grid on your refrigerator, bathroom mirror or anywhere that you will see it.. There is a new electronic version of the Amsler test called Foresee Home.
Ophthalmologists generally recommend that you stop smoking, a literature review found a two- to- threefold higher risk for developing age-related macular degeneration in smokers. eat a balanced diet that includes leafy green vegetables, and protect your eyes from sun exposure with sunglasses that block ultraviolet (UVA & UVB ) sunrays.
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study(AREDS)  found that supplementation with antioxidants plus zinc decreased the likelihood of developing advanced age-related macular degeneration in some people. It also showed that for 13% of patients with a different genetic profile (2 high-risk CFH alleles and 0 ARMS2 risk alleles) the standard AREDS formula was detrimental and accelerated vision loss much faster.