What is Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)?
ARMD is a disorder of the macula. The macula is the part of your retina where your central and color vision comes from. ARMD is a complex disorder where degenerative protein/lipids (called “drusen”) deposit under the retina. These deposits are seen in early macular degeneration. As the disease progresses, the structural support system of the retina breaks down and can allow abnormal blood vessels to grow, or leak fluid and further disrupt the retinal cells. If these blood vessels grow in the macula then you will lose your central. (There are other types of macular degeneration and drusen deposits that are not related to ARMD so a complete eye exam by an eye doctor for diagnosis is recommended.)
ARMD is the leading cause of central vision loss in Americans over 50 years old.
There are three main types of age-related macular degeneration:
Dry or Nonexudative – drusen and pigment deposits only
What are the risk factors?
- Age: Affects more than 2 million Americans over 50 years old. The prevalence of ARMD in the USA is around 6% when 65 and almost 20% when 75 years old.
- Genetics: Family history (many genes being studied)
- Smoking: Increases your risk for progression
- Other eye conditions: hyperopia and light-colored iris
- Systemic diseases associated: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease
- Gender: women are more likely to be affected than men
- Race: Caucasian
- UV light – no significant proven risk but caution and sunglasses advised.
What is the treatment?
One of the mainstays of treatment is 1) quitting smoking and 2) AREDS vitamins. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) proved that certain vitamins can decrease your risk of progressing to advanced forms of macular degeneration if you have early to intermediate disease by 25% over 5-10 years.
A healthy diet of green leafy vegetables is also recommended, follow the Mediterranean Diet is recommended.
Smokers Caution: Prior studies by the National Cancer Institute showed that high amounts of beta carotene increased the risk of lung cancer in smokers and recent former smokers so the AREDS formulation without beta carotene and with lutein instead is recommended for those that are smokers or have smoked in the last 5-10 years.
Depending on your type and severity of macular degeneration, there are many new and exciting treatment options that can not only prevent further vision loss but they can help you regain vision, sometimes even back to 20/20. Discuss your options with your eye doctor.
Technologies that are available
Foresee Home AMD Monitoring System- this program can help detect the subtle changes in your vision that, when treated right away, may help preserve your vision- to learn more visit: https://www.foreseehome.com/
The Macular Degeneration Association has a virtual patient education series called Matters of Vision! Educational programs that are designed to give you the latest information about treatments, research & clinical trials. Please visit: https://macularhope.org/webinar-programs/ to sign up for your program of choice
What is Low Vision?
Low vision is defined as 20/60 or worse or a visual field less than 10?.
What is Legal Blindness?
Legal blindness is 20/200 or worse or a visual field less than 20?.
Why is Low Vision Awareness Important?
The most common causes of low vision in the USA are macular degeneration, followed by glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Identifying patients with low vision enables physicians to prescribe visual aids such as single-vision reading glasses, high power magnifiers, and closed-circuit TV monitors to assist with activities of daily living.
Where can I get help if I have Low Vision?
Talk to your eye physician.
Please see our resource page https://macularhope.org/patient-resources/